• Consultation No. 136  08.02.2017 – 24.03.2017
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    Global forum on food security and nutrition

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    Consultation No. 136 08.02.2017 – 24.03.2017

    Call for experiences and effective policy approaches in addressing food security and nutrition in the context of changing rural-urban dynamics© fao

    Collection of contributions received

    Table of Contents

    Topic note 3

    Governance: Territorial/integrated planning, services and infrastructure provision for enhanced connectivity, urban and rural policies and regulatory frameworks, land tenure, institutional arrangements and regulatory frameworks. 4

    Sustainability: Agriculture, climate change, natural resource use, economic efficiency, social inclusion. 4

    Food systems: Agriculture, sustainability, food production, food losses and waste, food transformation (transport, storage, processing, finance, wholesaling and retailing), food consumption patterns, supply chain management, nutrition, value chains, resources flow , rural responses to urbanization. 4

    Social and economic equity: labor and employment, youth employment, social protection, consumption patterns, health, nutrition, migration, multi-level livelihood systems, labor mobility, gender equality, education, social participation, poverty reduction, development of rural economy, resilience. 4

    Focus on rural-urban linkages: extent to which the experience/policy addresses inter-linkages and complementarities between rural and urban areas. 4

    Impact/relevance to food security and nutrition: extent to which the experience/policy addresses food security and nutrition issues (availability, access, utilization and stability) and poverty reduction. 4

    Adversity: extent to which the experience/policy presents lessons (positive and negative) on how gaps, obstacles and other adverse conditions (administrative, economic, political etc.) were addressed. 4

    Equity: extent to which the experience/policy addresses the role of smallholders including family farmers, vulnerable individuals and groups (women, youth, disabled, indigenous people, migrants/refugees). 4

    Innovation and change: extent to which the experience/policy presents a self-perceived element of change in the approach taken. 4

    Contributions received

    Urban planners 29

    Food system actors 29

    Nutritionists 29

    Informal sector 29

    Private sector 29

    National and local governments 29

    Rapid urbanization brings nutrition challenges affecting food access, diet and health. 30

    Urban dynamics such as city size, infrastructure and rural links affect nutrition. 30

    Medium-size cities can generate more equitable growth and better nutrition for the poor. 30

    The fastest growing cities are in Africa and Asia, where malnutrition is most prevalent. 30

    Now is the time to plan city development for better nutrition for its inhabitants. 30

    A.Overall, we need a comprehensive food-system approach to understand food security for urbanites, particularly those with low-incomes; 43

    B.We need to critically examine concepts of urban, peri-urban and rural, and how these are defined in various contexts as well as the blurring of conceptual boundaries. 43

    C.While urban agriculture is important, it may not play as important a role in urban food security as the urban food-security discourse suggests. Attention to other aspects of urban food supply and distribution is also needed. 43

    D.As Amartya Sen argued many decades ago, food security is mostly about purchasing power and entitlements, hence attention to incomes and livelihoods is of utmost importance to the question of food security, particularly in urban areas. 44

    E.The world currently produces enough food to generously feed the global population, in addition to incomes and entitlements, more focus needs to be placed on reducing food waste throughout the production and consumption change, particularly post-harvest losses (see Yasmeen 2014). 44

    F.The important role of women in the agri-food system, should not be ignored. Women play a key role in both food production and consumption in rural and urban areas. 44

    G.Municipal policies with respect to livelihoods, including within the urban food-system are as important as agricultural and food-distribution systems and related policies. 44

    1.Hayson, Gareth and Jane Battersby “Why urban agriculture isn’t a panacea for Africa’s food crisis,” The Conversation, April 14, 2016. Available at: http://theconversation.com/why-urban-agriculture-isnt-a-panacea-for-africas-food-crisis- 57680 44

    2.McGee, T.G. (2009), The Spatiality of Urbanization: The Policy Challenges of Mega-Urban and Desakota Regions of Southeast Asia (PDF), UNU-IAS Working Paper (161), United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies http://archive.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/161%20Terry%20McGee.pdf 44

    3.Yasmeen, G. "Accessing Urban Public Space for a Livelihood: India, Thailand and Philippines in comparative perspective,” In Women, Law and Culture: Culture, Conformity and Conflict, edited by Jocelynne A. Scutt, London: Palgrave-MacMillan, 2016. Hyperlink: https://www.palgrave.com/us/book/9783319449371. 44

    4.Yasmeen, G. and Narumol Nirathron, Vending in Public Space: The Case of Bangkok: multimedia policy brief commissioned by WIEGO. Co-authored with Dr. Narumol Nirathron of Thammasat University. http://wiego.org/sites/wiego.org/files/publications/files/Yasmeen-Vending-Public-SpaceBangkok-WIEGO-PB16.pdf (Published in August, 2014, dated May 2014) 44

    5.Yasmeen, G. “Malthus Revisited: Can the planet support another billion people?” iPolitics, November 28, 2014. http://www.ipolitics.ca/2014/11/28/malthus-revisited-can-theplanet-support-another-billion-people/ 44

    6.Yasmeen, G. Bangkok’s Foodscape: Public Eating, Gender Relations, and Urban Change, Bangkok: White Lotus Books, 2006 (Studies in Contemporary Thailand No. 16). http://www.whitelotuspress.com/bookdetail.php?id=E22485 44

    7.Yasmeen, G. Feeding Asian Cities. Proceedings of a Regional Seminar convened by CityNet, the Association of Food Marketing Agencies in Asia and the Pacific with the technical support of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) held in November 2000, Bangkok. Published in May 2001. Rome: FAO. Food into Cities collection, No. 2. 149 pp. Translated into French: Nourrir les villes d’Asie (2003). Available in English at: http://www.cityfarmer.org/FeedingAsianCities.pdf and in French at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y3399f/y3399f00.HTM 44

    8.Yasmeen, G. "Stockbrokers-turned-sandwich vendors: the economic crisis and small-scale food retailing in Thailand and the Philippines" In Development and Security in Southeast Asia Volume II: The People (eds.) David B. Dewitt and Carolina G. Hernandez. Series: The International Political Economy of New Regionalisms Series, Aldershot, Hampshire (UK): Ashgate, 2003. https://books.google.ca/books/about/Development_and_Security_in_Southeast_As.html ?id=heDsAAAAMAAJ&redir_esc=y&hl=en 45

    9.Yasmeen, G. “Workers in the urban “informal” food sector: innovative organizing strategies.” Food, Nutrition and Agriculture Vol. 21, 2001, pp. 32-43. http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/Y1931M/y1931m05.htm 45

    10.Feeding Cities in the Horn of Africa. Proceedings of a Subregional Workshop in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 7-9 May, 2002. Organized by: Addis Ababa City Government and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) under the auspices of: World Bank Horn of Africa Food Security Initiative and FAO Food Supply and Distribution to Cities Initiative. Report available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x8406e/x8406e00.htm 45

    11.Yasmeen, G. CFP Report 32 "Urban Agriculture in India: A Survey of Expertise, Capacities and Recent Experience" by Gisèle Yasmeen, Ph.D. A Study Commissioned by IDRC's South Asia Regional Office, 2001. Available at: http://www.idrc.ca/uploads/userS/10276266100report32.doc 45

    Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadería y Alimentación MAPA. 55

    Principal entidad responsable

    Coordinadora de Manejo Sostenible de los Sistemas Productivos


    01/12/2010 hasta 31/12/2020. 55

    Fuente de financiación

    Fundos gubernamentales de Brasil 55

    Otras fuentes de recursos financieros disponibles.



    Al cabo de COP 15 Copenhague 2009, Brasil se ha decidido empezar voluntariamente la disminución de la emisión de gases de efecto invernadero de la orden de 1 mil millones de toneladas de CO2 eq. Hasta el año 2020.


    Creo-se el Plan ABC con enfoque en la aplicación de tecnologías sostenibles en la agricultura, ganadería y bosques, que sean efectivas en la reducción de emisión de gases de efecto invernadero, visando lograr mejores condiciones para los productores rurales. 55

    Características principales de la experiencia/proceso

    El Plan ABC hace disponible para los productores rurales información, capacitación y créditos bancarios para aplicación de tecnologías que posan reducir la emisión de gases de efecto invernadero, bien como aumentar la renta de los productores rurales. 55

    Actores clave involucrados y su función

    El MAPA en la coordinación nacional del Plan 55

    Los Estados federados de Brasil con acciones relevantes para cada estado en el uso de tecnologías del Plan 56

    Los productores rurales que son los más grandes beneficiarios con acceso a tecnologías, crédito bancario y aumento de renta en la propiedad.

    Principales cambios observados que suponen una mejora de la seguridad alimentaria y la nutrición

    Con el aumento en la renta, el productor rural tiene oportunidad de empezar hábitos de dieta más sanos y consecuente mejoría en la cualidad de vida.

    Desafíos a los que hubo que enfrentarse y cómo se superaron

    El convencimiento de los productores rurales de que la adopción de las tecnologías eran buenas no solamente para disminución de emisión de gases de efecto invernadero, pero también que lograba mejores rendimientos en su propiedad con consecuente mejoría en la cualidad de vida.

    Enseñanzas/mensajes clave 56

    Conocimiento, Deseo de mejorar la vida en el campo, Empoderamiento. 56

    English translation 56


    a.NCC’s presentation on agriculture and the 2015 Nairobi City County Urban Agriculture Promotion and Regulation Act 75

    b.Urban agriculture in Africa and globally 75

    c.Urban Agriculture and waste management in the food system 75

    d.Discussion on implementing the 2015 Act 75

    a.The urban agri-food system 76

    b.Urban food systems: a world-wide policy challenge 76

    c.Local government jurisdictions in the food system 76

    d.Other stakeholders in the food system 76

    e.Discussion on Nairobi’s inter-sectoral opportunities and challenges 76

    a.Challenges of planning and design for urban food systems 76

    b.Components of urban food systems that need planning and design 76

    c.Types of food spaces in Nairobi 76

    d.Case of NACHU housing cooperative 76

    e.Discussion on planning and design food systems in Nairobi 76

    a.Urban agriculture, incomes and poverty 76

    b.Agro-ecology v WTO and trade agreements 76

    c.Making the local and regional food economies work 76

    d.Services and programs to get small farmers out of poverty 76

    e.Discussion on Nairobi City County’s food system as a productive sector 76

    a.Urban food and nutrition security globally and in Africa 76

    b.The right to adequate food and nutrition – how urban agriculture helps 76

    c.Veterinary public health and livestock consumption – learning from Nairobi 76

    d.Aquaculture, fish and water management 76

    e.The way forward for Nairobi City County 76

    with farmers and their communities to understand their constraints and build capacity to produce their own compost 85

    with policymakers to ensure an enabling environment for investors, manufacturers, traders and farmers 85

    with investors and manufacturers to develop the supply side of the sub-sector, including agro-dealers and providers of knowledge and advice. 85

    Successful distribution of inputs and tools to 1’000 beneficiary households at the onset of the dry season 110

    The two implementing partners (DMI, Caritas-Juba) conducted successful trainings to all town groups of farmers on vegetable production 111

    Implementing partners reported that most farmers undertook vegetable cultivation at the early part of the dry season; and were able to produce food and sell the surplus during the November–December lean season 111

    The procurement of seeds and other inputs (as annexed) in bulk for the entire project has helped minimize delays in project implementation 111

    By capitalizing on the competitive bidding process of ELRP partners and taking into account the previous experience these partners have collaborating with FAO in Juba, FAO was able to minimize the need for additional training and facilitate an easy transition to urban agriculture methodologies. 111

    The school children and the community members actively participated in the food security programme, inspiring people from other villages to become more involved in urban agriculture. 112

    School administrations and the communities actively participated in the programme. The intervention was appreciated by the communities in all the payams. 112


    Representación de FAO Bolivia 113

    Ministerio de Desarrollo Productivo y Economía Plural, Programa Nacional de Agricultura Urbana y Periurbana 113

    Gobierno Autónomo Departamental de Chuquisaca, Proyecto Huertos Urbanos de Sucre 113

    Gobierno Autónomo Municipal de Sucre, Proyecto de Agricultura Urbana de Sucre 113

    Asociación de Productores Urbanos de Sucre 114

    Fundación ACLO, Fundación IPTK y ONG ADI. 114

    Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y Agricultura. TCP/BOL/3406 Baby 2 “Asistencia Técnica para la consolidación del Sistema Nacional de Agricultura Urbana y Periurbano” 114

    Sucre, Bolivia 114

    Bolivia, situada en América del Sur, tiene una superficie de 1.098.580 Km2, por lo que puede considerarse un país de superficie considerable si se relaciona con su número de habitantes de 10.724.705 personas. 114

    Su capital es Sucre, ciudad de montaña en la que se ha iniciado la implementación de un sistema agroalimentario urbano y periurbano incluyente, resiliente y sostenible con el apoyo de FAO Bolivia. 114

    En los últimos años ha experimentado un importante crecimiento económico y un rápido proceso de urbanización debido a flujos migratorios campo – ciudad. Según el Instituto Nacional de Estadística de Bolivia (INE), en el año 2012 la población vivía en áreas urbanas era del 67,49% y se estima que para el año 2020 la población urbana llegará al 75%. 114

    Desde el año 2009, una nueva Constitución Política establece que el Estado boliviano tiene la obligación de garantizar la seguridad alimentaria con soberanía, a través de una alimentación sana, adecuada y suficiente para toda la población. En Bolivia, la soberanía alimentaria se entiende como la autodeterminación de los pueblos y naciones de definir e implementar libremente sus políticas y estrategias de producción, transformación, distribución y consumo de alimentos para garantizar su autoabastecimiento. 114

    Gracias a esta experiencia y sus impactos, en octubre del año 2015, el alcalde de Sucre, Iván Arciénaga fue invitado a firmar el “Pacto de Política Alimentaria Urbana de Milán”. En octubre del 2016 la misma autoridad participó del evento Habitat III en Quito. En diciembre de 2017, la ciudad de Sucre fue anfitriona del Primer Encuentro Plurinacional de Agricultura Urbana y Periurbana, evento en la que se la distinguió como la ”capital” de la agricultura Urbana y Periurbana de Bolivia. 115

    1.Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, normador de la Política de Alimentación y Nutrición (PAN), 30 de octubre de 2014 Decreto Supremo Nº 2167. 115

    2.Ministerio de Desarrollo Productivo y Economía Plural, implementador de Programa Nacional de Agricultura Urbana y Periurbana (PNAUP), conforme al Decreto Supremo Nº 2167. 115

    3.Gobierno Autónomo Departamental de Chuquisaca, implementador del Proyecto Huertos Urbanos de Sucre 115

    4.Gobierno Autónomo Municipal de Sucre. implementador del Proyecto de Agricultura Urbana de Sucre. 115

    5.Asociación de Productoras Urbanas y Periurbanas, sujetos beneficiarios de las políticas nacionales. 115

    6.Fundación ACLO, Fundación IPTK y ONG ADI. 115

    7.Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación (FAO Bolivia), aliado estratégico de asistencia técnica al Estado de Bolivia 116

    Las familias genera un ingreso neto adicional de 4.000,00 a 5.000,00 Bs/año (574,7 - 718,4 USD/año) por familia. 116

    Las familias que ya no adquieren hortalizas del mercado e incorporan 16 variedades de hortalizas en sus dietas de 6 que consumían antes del proyecto. 116

    Empoderamiento económico de mujeres que aportan a la economía familiar, mediante la producción y venta de hortalizas. 116

    Apoyo a familias migrantes de zonas periurbanas. 116

    Autoempleo (70% de las mujeres en las zonas periurbana eran Amas de Casa, ahora tienen un empleo, que es el trabajo en la huerta). 116

    Generación de líderes mujeres (Juana Serrudo – Presidenta de la Asociación APUS y Reyna Mallcu – Representante SPG Sucre). 116

    Participación de los miembros de la familia en la producción 116

    Articulación desde sistema Nacional de Agricultura urbana entre el Ministerio, las Gobernación y el Municipio a través de Comités Directivos (autoridades), y Comités Técnicos Nacionales y Comités Técnicos Locales (técnicos). 116

    Gestión de financiamiento de recursos nacionales propios (soberanía alimentaria a partir de soberanía económica), apoyando en la formulación de proyectos y reformulación de POAS departamentales y nacionales, según la norma nacional. 116

    Empoderamiento y organización de mujeres para conformar una asociación a través del fortalecimiento organizacional con enfoque de género. 116

    FAO Representation in Bolivia 116

    Ministry of Productive Development and Plural Economics, Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture National Programme 117

    Departmental Autonomous Government of Chuquisaca, Sucre Urban Gardens Project 117

    Municipal Autonomous Government of Sucre, Sucre Urban Agriculture Project 117

    Association of Urban Producers of Sucre 117

    ACLO Foundation, IPTK Foundation and the NGO “ADI”. 117

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. TCP/BOL/3406 Baby 2 "Technical Assistance for the consolidation of the Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture National System" 117

    Sucre, Bolivia 117

    Bolivia, located in South America, has a surface area of 1 098 580 km2. Hence, it can be considered a fairly large country, in particular in relation of its population (10 724 705 people). 117

    Its capital, Sucre, is a mountain town where the implementation of an inclusive, resilient and sustainable urban and peri-urban agro-food system has been launched with the support of FAO Bolivia. 117

    In recent years, Sucre has experienced significant economic growth and rapid urbanization due to rural-urban migratory flows. According to the INE (National Institute of Statistics of Bolivia), 67,49% of the population lived in urban areas in 2012, and it is expected that urban population will rise to 75% in 2020. 118

    Since 2009, a new Constitution establishes the obligation of the Bolivian State to guarantee food security and sovereignty through a healthy, adequate and sufficient diet for the entire population. In Bolivia, food sovereignty is understood as the self-determination of people and nations to freely define and implement their food production, transformation, distribution and consumption policies and strategies to ensure self-sufficiency. 118

    Thanks to this experience and its impacts, the mayor of Sucre, Ivan Arciénaga, was invited in October 2015 to sign the "Milan Urban Food Policy Pact". In October 2016, he also participated in the Habitat III event in Quito. In December 2017, the city of Sucre hosted the First Pluri-national Encounter of Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture, and was declared the Bolivian "capital" of Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture. 118

    8.Pluri-national State of Bolivia. Legislated the PAN (Food and Nutrition Policy), October 30, 2014, Supreme Decree No. 2167. 118

    9.Ministry of Productive Development and Plural Economic. Implemented the PNAUP (Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture National Programme), in accordance with Supreme Decree No. 2167. 118

    10.Departmental Autonomous Government of Chuquisaca. Implemented the Sucre Urban Gardens Project. 118

    11.Municipal Autonomous Government of Sucre. Implemented the Sucre Urban Agriculture Project. 118

    12.Association of Urban and Peri-urban women Producers. Beneficiaries of the national policies. 119

    13.ACLO Foundation, IPTK Foundation and NGO “ADI”. 119

    14.Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO Bolivia). Strategic ally providing technical assistance to the State of Bolivia. 119

    Each family generates an additional net income of 4 000,00 – 5 000,00 Bs/year (574.7 – 718.4 USD/year). 119

    Families no longer buy vegetables in the market. The amount of vegetable varieties included in their diets rose from 6 to 16. 119

    Economic empowerment of women who contribute to the household economy by producing and selling vegetables. 119

    Support for migrant families in peri-urban areas. 119

    Self-employment (70% of women in the peri-urban areas were housewives and now have a job working in the gardens). 119

    New women leaders (Juana Serrudo, President of the APUS Association, and Reyna Mallcu, SPG Sucre Representative). 119

    Participation of family members in production 119

    Coordination under the Urban Agriculture National System between the Ministry, the Governor and the City through Steering Committees (authorities), and National Technical Committees and Local Technical Committees (technicians). 119

    Management of national resources funding (food sovereignty based on economic sovereignty), based on the drafting of projects and redrafting of AOPS, according to the national law. 119

    Empowerment and organization of women to develop a partnership through organizational strengthening with a gender focus. 119

    scattered production with just three to five trees per garden, 166

    low prices that discouraged farmers from planting additional trees and 166

    inconsistent and unreliable supply chain

    Gender mainstreaming is essential to ensure that benefits are extended to all stakeholders. 166

    Social inclusion is cross-cutting. Accordingly, working with poor groups' organizations – especially small-scale and indigenous farmers' groups – and recognizing, as well as securing rights to, tangible and intangible assets of these groups is a priority. 170

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